U. WAR DEPARTMENT TECHNICAL MANUAL GERMAN-ENGLISH MILITARY DICTIONARY WAR DEPARTMENT 20 MAY I944. S. List of abbreviations, acronyms and initials related to military subjects such as modern armour, ACOG – Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight; ACOMMS – Acoustic Communications; ACP Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The RCS of an air vehicle is a function of the RF wavelength and the vehicle shape, size, materials, and orientation. Tanks and fighter planes, dioramas of World War II battles, dreadnoughts and battleships — LEGO builders have an obvious fascination with the arms and armor of the military-industrial complex. movement; free drop; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop. . Prior to the American involvement in World War 2, British and Commonwealth air power stood alone against the Axis war machine. You can click on the techniques to see pictures descriptions and information about them. ★ TUBE PLUS DUAL SURVIVAL ★ Bestselling Survival System-Top Rated Survival Guide With Insider Tips And Strategies. Context Context The Queensland Fire and Rescue Service (QFRS) Skills and Drills manual provides firefighters entering the QFRS with information on the core skills and drills required to be an effective member of an operational firefighting crew. 25/02/2015 · In fighter planes, Noise-induced hearing loss is a serious disease burden in the military. This report is a product of the Defense Science Board (DSB). Also used as a verb, meaning “did verySearch the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. htm June 10, 2013 2:05:29 PM ThisfileisavailableontheCryptomeDVD offeredbyCryptome. Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant impairment in the military and can affect combat performance. The Luftwaffe consisted of air units that made up the majority of the German air force, as well as Fallschrimjäger units, field divisions, the elite Herman Göring ground formations, thousands of smaller anti-aircraft, engineer, communications and security units, and a fair number of Luftwaffe naval vessels and formations as well. The armed forces comprise three main service branches – Army, Navy, and Air Force – together with a number of paramilitary download Leading Marines Command And Military Organization Answers kindle Leading Marines - Free ebook download as PDF File (. Military fighter Helicopter Armoury and munitions Space Energy Nuclear Oil and gas Renewables General industrial Tooling Agriculture and forestry The Air Force is the part of the military that fights using aircraft including fighter planes and bombers. pdf. members of the R. Acronym. AFMC. 31 Mar 2017 understanding for our approach to combat and to operations. Army Army Armament Research and Development Command. Download wallpapers War Thunder, Messerschmitt Bf109G-6, Spitfire FMkIX, air battle, World War II, online games, military aircraft, WW2, Luftwaffe, Royal Air Force for desktop freeNOISE AND FLIGHT PATH MONITORING SYSTEM QUARTERLY REPORT July – 19th October 2009 DEFENCE PROJECT NUMBER: CNN937 AIRSERVICES AUSTRALIA REPORT No: DOD YWLM09Q3 December 2009 McDonnell Douglas F/A-18C BAe Hawk 127 Lead-In Fighter Pilatus PC-9 . Instead of converting car or bus production to manufacturing fighter aircraft or tanks in times of war, nations The strategic success of the Royal Air Force in wrestling air superiority from the Germans was the key that allowed the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) to prepare and conduct its campaign against the central powers across the plains1 a: of or relating to soldiers, arms, or war military discipline the country's military needs b : of or relating to armed forces especially : of or relating to ground or sometimes ground and air forces as opposed to naval forces military and naval affairsSeen here in UK Royal Navy service, the AW101 has been selected by Poland, primarily in an anti-submarine role but also with a secondary combat search-and-rescue role. Most large airports have entire sections of the airport and warehouses for dealing with air cargo. Free entry for owners of pre-booked classic cars otherwise £2 per person or £5 per carfulbe found in the glossary under its full name; e. Applications for written Long's introduction records the transformation of the T--37 from a trainer into an attack aircraft. Allrightsreserved. 109 . For additional help with fill-in forms, contact the Member Services Contact Center at (800) 821-2251 or in Juneau (907) 465-4460. Fixed-wing aircraft - The type of aircraft commonly thought of by most people. By order of the Secretary of War:Learn Russian military words with Yakov. pdf FREE DOWNLOAD, DICTIONARY OF MILITARY AND NAVAL QUOTATIONS PDF related documents: Computational Intelligence In Expensive Optimization Problems Random Fields And Stochastic Partial Differential Equations 1st Edition Information Systems Development Advances …★★ Tube Plus Dual Survival - Survival Man Living Off The Grid 2019. http://www. aircraft carrier intervention during the 1996. GLOSSARY OF COMMON MILITARY TERMS to close combat with the enemy and to drive him out . aircraft, air defense weapons, electronic warfare, and other available weapons. Jump to navigation Jump to search. . (IFPA), now in its thirty-fifth year, develops innovative strategies for new security challenges. Browse through our glossary of terms to see how many words and phrases you know and use. The U. It is the primary The Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms sets forth standard US military and associated terminology to encompass the joint activity of the Armed Forces of the United States. military to transfer fuel from one aircraft to another . This article does not cite any sources. Using recent analysis, Welter appears to have made 20 confirmed kills, including a large number of Mosquitos, with his Me-262, making him the highest scoring German jet fighter pilot. Trained soldiers might take up arms for nearly any cause imaginable. AACOMS. The report is for Sunday 15 September, considered by many as the turning point in the Battle of Britain. Air Force Manual. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. ABA. F. OVERVIEW There are a total of 157 WW2 British Aircraft (1939-1945) in the Military Factory. A Dictionary of Military Architecture: Fortification and Fieldworks from the Iron Age After DOD-wide staffing by the US NATO Military Terminology Group . Latin, Manius. The U. This page doesn't attempt to define all the things you might hear - it would easily take a whole book to define that. foxhole A hole dug in the ground as a temporary protection for one or two soldiers against enemymilitary and naval powers are so numerous that only an expert can be expected to know and recognize them all. Long's introduction records the transformation of the T--37 from a trainer into an attack aircraft. It has been a long time since I received some questions about military English exams in Poland for the first time. ). Glossary of fighter pilot jargon and terms. ; Bodysnatcher: (Army) stretcher bearer; Boots Combat buckshee: easy/free/superfluous/unnecessary "I've just got a buckshee . Since the end of World War II, most countries had developed the idea that a major feature of security policy was the Defence Industrial Base (DIB). Retirement and Benefits Forms & Brochures. edu/wvsu/media/Research/Branch-Brief. Advanced Lift Equipment Register Form Book. You might need to use Spanish military words if you plan to travel and use this new language you're learning. Accidental Butt: It is ruled an accidental butt when two fighter’s heads collide and the TM 30-506. Military slang is a set of colloquial terms which are unique to or which originated with military personnel. 2. FES Program Director and senior military officer advisor responsible for the Air Force FES Program consistent with AFPD 32-20, Fire Emergency Services and DoDI 6055. ELECTRONIC WARFARE Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5. ace – Baseball: A team’s best starting pitcher. manual manual / m njuəl/ noun a book of in- structions @ There is a detailed This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that have been or are used by the German military. Classic Cars and aircraft on display, but not a full airshow. Boxing Dictionary & Lingo: Glossary of Terms; BOXING DICTIONARY. Many of the terms below can be applied to combat in other environments . FOREIGN FIGHTER INVOLVEMENT IN SYRIA Ms. Comes from the Allied Maritime Tactical and Maneuvering Book, conveyed by . Accidental Butt: It is ruled an accidental butt when two fighter’s heads collide and the Aircraft manufacturing is an important industrial sector in Russia, employing around 355,300 people. Although some service members work in occupations specific to the military, such as fighter pilots or infantrymen, many work in occupations that also exist in the civilian workplace, such as nurses, doctors, and lawyers. Glossary 157 Review 159. Military. List of abbreviations, acronyms and initials related to military subjects such as modern armour, . It provides information on current operational aircraft of the United States and foreign countries, which may be observed worldwide in the combat area. On the right is an extract from a combat report written by Douglas Bader. The Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, Inc. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Applications for written Members of the U. ADJUST— A command to the spotter or observer tomilitary and associated terminology to improve communication and mutual understanding within DOD with other US Government departments and agencies and among the United States and its allies. Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) Land Operations is the primary source of doctrine for in the Army field Manual (AfM) series, handbooks and aides-memoire. A. This manual is primarily a ready reference to assist the ground observer in aircraft recognition and identification. Ranks and translations of nicknames for vehicles are included. The Air Force is also responsible for military satellites in space. This is the same act that created the United States Air Force and restructured the War Department into the Department of Defense. You can look for your term in several categories: axes, daggers and knives, swords, spears and other pole arms, blunt weapons, siege, armour. A Dictionary of Military Architecture: Fortification and Fieldworks from the Iron Age Dictionary of Human Resources and Personnel Management A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library . Kristensen/Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005 2 About the Author Hans M. - latest china russia military newsReviewed by Clotilde Zetticci For your safety and comfort, read carefully e-Books world military leaders a biographical dictionary librarydoc99 PDF this Our Library Download File Free PDF Ebook. Provide high quality, state-of-the-art prevention-based health care for Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) members, families and beneficiaries. Civilian a non-military person: a soldier’s life starts as a civilian Soldier a soldier This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that have been or are used by the German military. AARB. standard US military and associated terminology to encompass the joint The DOD Dictionary is accessible online as a searchable database and in PDF format . He retired as a lieutenant colonel from the US Army Reserves having served 20 years as an armour officer in the US 2nd and 4th Infantry Divisions and as an intelligence officer in the 29th Infantry Division (Light). Controllers are required to be familiar with the provisions of this order that Controllers are required to be familiar with the provisions of this order that pertain to their operational responsibilities and to exercise their best judgment if they encounterGlossary of Terms: The Things They Carried “The Things They Carried” rucksack A kind of knapsack strapped over the shoulders. Skidmore Research Assistant, ICT January 2014 * The views expressed in this publication are solely those …Prospective students searching for List of Free Online Military Science Courses and Classes found the articles, information, and resources on this page helpful. This is a list of established military terms which have been in use for at least 50 years. This results from the need for expedient and clear communication. Quarterly Report July – 19 October 2009 Prepared by Environment Services Report No: DoD YWLM09Q3 Page …- xviii - WSO Weapon Systems Officer – Second crew member in two seat fighters such as the F-15E responsible for operating navigation, electronic countermeasures,[PDF]Free Dictionary Of Military And Naval Quotations download Book Dictionary Of Military And Naval Quotations. APPENDIX J: Glossary of Acronyms. What modern militaries are not good at is understanding the psychological and 12/10/2017 · stealth fighter (plural stealth fighters) ( military , aviation ) A fighter ( military aircraft ) that is invisible to radar because of its unique body shape, outer coating, and thermal dissipation . The Saab 340B is a favourite among aircraft passengers, offering flexibility, comfort and reliability, while operators also value it for its cost-effective performance capabilities. The 28. aircraft of the US Air Force. 000-to-29. ) Manual field artillery firing calculations performed with paper (charts), Jan 3, 2019 China's defense and military goals, strategy, plans, and intentions; the organization, structure, and capability of its military . ) An A-10 Thunderbolt or similar aircraft that uses laser guided . I have never tried to answer such questions thouroughly on my website. (April 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Pilots running to their Hawker Hurricane aircraft during the Battle of Britain In military aviation, scrambling is the act of quickly mobilising military aircraft Retirement and Benefit Forms listed by alpha. These air traffic control services. J. B130936 Law of War/Introduction to Rules of Engagement 3 Basic Officer Course Law of War/Introduction to Rules of Engagement (Continued) Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objectives TBS-UCMJ-1003 Without the aid of reference, describe the Law of War, without omitting key components TBS-UCMJ-2102 Without the aid of references, describe Rules of We have 31 free military fonts to offer for direct downloading · 1001 Fonts is your favorite site for free fonts since 2001Why fighter pilots were born Flying BFM or 1-versus-1 air combat in the F-16 is a wonderful thing! The F-16 is a small, highly maneuverable fighter that can dominate most other jets in a fight. 1. TM 11-662 Basic Theory and Application of Electron Tubes 1955-11-08. Bader was given command of No. The Joint Publication (JP) 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated JP 1-02 is accessible online as a searchable database and in PDF format at the . Robert Forczyk has a PhD in International Relations and National Security from the University of Maryland and is a specialist in European and Asian military history. The Air Force was part of the Army up until 1947 when it was made into its own branch. FightingShips 2016-2017 CommodoreStephen Saunders RN ISBN -978 07106 3185 5 ©2016IHS. A glossary for Soldiers and Chiefs Information Booklet for Adults. It's full of terminology that is so strong that much of it has become a part of every day lingo. Statements, opinions, conclusions, and …equipment, cited as authority in contract and military specifications and ap­ plicable as a guide for drafting and design personnel responsible for drawings for production or for use wholly within a plant or company. In the inter-vening years, Iran has experienced a bitter war with Iraq, the trans …Buy The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570 by Joachim Meyer (ISBN: 9781848327788) from Amazon's Book Store. The Pushing the Envelope Educators Guide has been created for grades 9 to 12 to aid in teach-ing math, physics, and chemistry concepts from the viewpoint of propulsion and aeronautics. 20301-3140. Propeller A rotating piece powered by the engine that produces thrust to propel the airplane through the air. It also provides firefighters with a study and reference point when practising or delivering firefighting skills and drills armed forces, armed services, military, military machine, war machine - the military forces of a nation; "their military is the largest in the region"; "the military machine is …Glossary of World War II Vocabulary and Concepts (European Theatre) World War II lasted six years and embroiled more than 50 countries. The sport of boxing has its own, unique language. …Space Handbook - A War Fighter's Guide to Space, Volume I 1 http://cryptome. Most DRB forms are interactive fillable forms. C3I – Command, control, communications, and intelligence; CAB – Combat aviation battalion Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. He is the Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine x Vol. Appendix G - Glossary Of Terms & Definitions g-1 jfsc pub 1 appendix g glossary of terms and definitions acronyms and abbreviations the following lists acronyms or abbreviations frequently used in joint/combined op-Clearance Authorities And Booking Offices, Part Ii, Appendix R defense transportation regulation – part ii 10 october 2018 cargo movement ii-r-1 appendix r clearance authorities Glossary of Terms and Acronyms 27 Notes. Spoken: “Oh Three Eleven” See also: 11B and MOS. UNITED STATES IN SOUTHEAST ACES and AERIAL VICTORIES stantial military advantage. Many companies that move cargo, such as FedEx and the US Postal Service, have their own airplanes for moving air cargo. Swords, Knives and Daggers – A really well-organised glossary on medieval weaponry. Long Title Autonomous Air Combat Manoeuvring Installation. A praenomen, typically abbreviated when writing the full tria nomina. Introduction 1 1 Importance to communication 2 1 Early experimenters 3 2 Tube types 4 4 Tube functions 5 5 Summary 6 8 Review questions 7 8 CHAPTER 2. Between 1939 and 1945 over 3. txt) or read book online for free. (GR)= Greek expression. Term forthe act of morning Shower, Sh*t & Shave (Army Slang); ally, allie, ali, alle: Stylish, tough or 'hard' looking. We can help you learn all the important military words in Spanish with mind-blowing Memory Machine, and then you can quiz …—i— FOREWORD The NATO Logistics Handbook is published under the auspices of the Logistics Committee (LC) and aims to introduce logisticians at every level to some ofAlso called "PDF", this is the electronic display screen that indicates the horizon, altitude, airspeed, vertical speed, rate of turn, trend and more. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Military Basic English e-book is designed to cover the basic specialized knowledge It covers both general and specific military terminology in English providing up to date The mission of the Navy is to train and equip combat ready naval forces capable . This results from the need for expedient and This article presents an overview of classification and taxonomic arrangement of abbreviations in English military terminology and analyzed from two perspectives – orthographic and morphological. Military slang is a set of colloquial terms which are unique to or which originated . not assigned PDFs nor can a weapon be assigned. MANUAL. pdf), Text File (. It complements related discussion found inA glossary of Wing Chun hand techniques This is a growing list of Wing Chun Techniques. You can find the websites and social media presences associated with the individual service branches below. platform; air movement; free drop; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop. The reconfiguration began in 1962 but was on-and-off until 1966. It has wings that do not move. 242 Squadron in June 1940. cn course (as distinguished from course angle). A calendar showing the dates and details of British military and civilian airshows throughout the UK, including seaside and aerodrome air shows. 3. The guide is aligned to the national mathematics and science stan-dards. com/resources/glossaries/weapons-war-combatThe definitions are clear and jargon-free. Kristensen is an independent nuclear weapons policy analyst who hasThe sale of 40 F-16 Multi-role fighter aircraft to the emerging nation of Pakistan not only encompasses a variety of geo-political, economic, and military consequences for the06/11/2015 · outlaw162 wrote: basher, I used to think I was the world's greatest fighter pilot until a Miramar 'Mongoose' driver talked me into a 4000' line abreast, co-speed 400 KIAS or so setup (copious amounts of free beer at stake). AFSOC Medical Capabilities. The present U. Spanish Military Words. 1 DRAFT -- 30 July 99 This document provides the Service views on this subject. No partofthis publication may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording orotherwise, or be stored in any retrieval system of any nature, without prior written permission of IHS Global Limited. Free Aircraft Checklists to Download - from Cessna 150 to Boeing 747. 1 x January 2009 31 FATIGUE COUNTERMEASURES — CALDWELL ET AL. 06, DoD Fire and Emergency Services Program . A HISTORY OF MODERN IRAN In a radical reappraisal of Iran’s modern history, Ervand Abrahamian traces its traumatic journey across the twentieth century, through the discoveryofoil,imperialinterventions,theruleofthePahlavis,and,in 1979, revolution and the birth of the Islamic Republic. aswg can be found under advisory statistical work group. Agrarista: (Land reform) an agrarista is a supporter or a proponent of land reform (La reforma agraria) dealing with the distribution of lands. Bombers, fighters, fighter-bombers, and Determination of the friendly or unfriendly Ian Moir and Allan Seabridge Military avionics is a complex and technically challenging field which requires a high level of competence from all those involved in the aircraft design and maintenance. Aegis — A ship-based combat system that can detect, track, target, and . You can print the forms from the Web site and fill them out by hand, or, fill them out online and then print them. M'. There are a total of 72 British X-Plane Aircraft in the Military Factory. Whether the champions of heroic kingdoms fighting off monstrous legions or the denizens of a bleak realm invading their neighbors, vast legions arise to do the will of lords both fair and foul. Apr 3, 2014 This Glossary was compiled to promote a common understanding of the . Free from American at- tack and helped by its Soviet and Chinese allies, the enemy was able to construct one of the most formid- able antiaircraft defenses the world has even seen. by order of the secretary of the air force air force instruction 24-203 2 november 2010 incorporating through change 3, 14 may 2012 holloman air force base APPENDIX I GLOSSARY OF COMMON MILITARY TERMS ADDRESSEE— The activity or individual to whom a message is to be delivered. C. Review with free audio flash cards and the Lingo Dingo review game. Militaries are generally very good at developing this knowledge, particularly identifying capabilities, military infrastructures, human geography, patterns and types of forces. in the section titled acronyms and abbreviations, not all terms are insurance related, but are commonly used in the Glossary Of Abbreviations And Acronyms 856 glossary of abbreviations and acronyms cm centimeter(s). 12/03/2007 · civilian and military communities and other govern-ment agencies. For example: ACE -- aviation combat element (USMC) or AFNORTHWEST -- Allied . g. After DOD-wide staffing by the US NATO Military Terminology Group . (U. Hussar Civilian Grenadier Kinds of Soldiers This set of military terms for different kinds of soldiers will help you to become familiar with the terminology used in the exhibits. Beam Rider: (U. wvstateu. Unless otherwise specified, all definitions used in ADP Land Operations are Definitions for terms and acronyms used throughout MOD documents. cmg course made good. AFSOC medics provide a comprehensive medical platform for SOF personnel across the health care …INEGMA Special Report No. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. Nuclear Weapons in Europe • Hans M. Military aircraft: Military aircraft, any type of aircraft that has been adapted for military use. military service maintain the U. Marine Corps MOS for Rifleman. They are often abbreviations or derivatives of the NATO Phonetic Alphabet, or otherwise incorporating aspects of formal military concepts and terms. Death toll estimates go as high as 70 million but the most scholarly sources estimate that a staggering 55 million people were killed, most of them civilians. Latin, Marcus. Fighter aircraft - A type of military airplane used mainly to fight with other airplanes. Prevention is still the mainstay of treatment and soldiers need to be educated with regards to the use of hearing Location: 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD38 Weapons, War and Combat Glossaries | Inbox Translation https://inboxtranslation. during nighttime fl ights compared to daytime fl ights. Flag images indicative of country of …The traditional military focus for understanding was identifying and knowing about adversaries in order to neutralise or defeat them. 80, No. RF systems is the radar cross section (RCS, or σ), usually quoted as a log 1 0 of the cross section measured in square meters (dBsm). The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent advice to the Secretary of Defense. Application This publication applies to the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Services, the Joint Staff (JS), combatant commands, DOD agencies, and all other DOD components. Glossary of Terms . Oberleutnant Kurt Welter, who had two years’ experience as a night fighter in FW-190s and Me-109s, proved to be the best of the night fighter aces. info/shall. It included MIG forces, surface-to-air missile (SAM) batteries, heavy concentrations of antiaircraft artil- radar systems. Retirement and Benefits Forms Alpha List. The web's largest collection of checklists. 4 million served in the German on Directed Energy Weapons December 2007 Office of the Under Secretary of Defense For Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics Washington, D. This list of Greek and Latin terms used in connection with the Roman army is fairly comprehensive, but not complete. (Click here for bottom) M m M. Due to the nature of the military profession, hearing is a vital asset during tactical and survival training and exposure to loud noises during training and missions are inevitable. The design of the guide allows for sections to be completed Uniformed Services Military service has a long tradition in the United States. national defense. The use of the extensive glossaries found in the handbooks listed in the Roman army bibliography is recommended Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. The dissolution of the Soviet Union led to a deep crisis for the industry, especially for …RF systems is the radar cross section (RCS, or σ), usually quoted as a log 1 0 of the cross section measured in square meters (dBsm). military organizational structure is a result of the National Security Act of 1947. Highly dependable and with low operational costs, the aircraft has consistently generated profits for a …Hearing plays a vital role in the performance of a soldier and is important for speech processing. Scanner Frequencies and Radio Frequency Reference for Common MilitaryGlossary of Sports Slang and Idioms Used in Casual American Conversation . Overview The end of the Cold War left the defence industry at a major turning point. Read the glossary. Many of the definitions below are printed in-verbatim as given to me by former members of the 336th Fighter Interceptor Squadron. 700 MHz Amateur radio band is approximately 10 meters in wavelength so it is called the 10 Meter band. Welcome to the Military Monitoring Glossary. Adaptation . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Generally speaking, all military aircraft fall into one of the following categories: fighters, bombers, ground-support aircraft, transport and cargo planes, helicopters, and unmanned aerial vehicles. military uses many unique acronyms, terms and jargon. 7 Evolving Terrorist Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) Migration Across South Asia, Caucasus, and the Middle East. Glossary and definitions Page 39 Contacts Page 40. The 10 meter band is adjacent to the Citizen’s Band (27 MHz, or 11 meters), so it has Air cargo - Cargo that is moved using airplanes. Some of these terms are no longer used in today’s armies. SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES AEROSPACE AND OPERATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY fighter performance. Glossary of ancient Greek military terminology; Arrian's Array Against the Alans; Imperial Roman army rank structure (LA)= Latin expression