Vlsi design issues notes


Lecture: MWF 10:00 Rm 204 Marsten. Roy, S. vlsi design i to iv semesters curricula and syllabi (full time) semester iFloorplan Design of VLSI Circuits 267 A binary sequence bib2" 9 9 bm is said to be a balloting sequence iff for any k, 1 - k- < m, the number of 0's is less than l's in bib2 9 9 9 bk. E. VLSIFabrication Technology: Basic Steps of Fabrication, CMOS p-Well and n-WellProcesses, Layout Design, Design Rules, Stick Diagram, Bi-CMOS FabricationProcess. A brief History-MOS transistor, Ideal I-V characteristics, C-V characteristics, Non ideal IV effects,VLSI lets IC designers add all of these into one chip. Stinson EE 371 Lecture 1 2 Class Overview This class builds on EE313 and EE271 to look at the circuit design issues in large digital VLSI chips. Discuss the basic attributes of VLSI systems, their impact upon society, and the tradeo s between design metrics, especially speed, power, and cost. Course Goals Main target outline of different strides in advanced CMOS VLSI configuration circuit, rationale, and engineering issues configuration devices and strategies building issues for execution, clamor, testability and so on. Complementary Issues for VLSI Implementation 6. A. Tested with Objective Questions This page was last edited on 25 February 2018, at 15:13. Microwind is a nice public domain tool for VLSI design. S. design, on chip communication and device control software. Module-1 Introduction to VLSI Design, Lecture 2 : System approach to VLSI Design, Lecture 2, 100 kb. Conclusions Gossary Bibliography Biographical Sketches Summary This chapter aims to offer the reader a comprehensive view about what we understand nowadays under the term VLSI. Analog VLSI Circuit Design. ECE 410, Prof. UNIT I CMOS TECHNOLOGY . Notes for VLSI Design - VLSI by Abhishek Kumar. So, we shall have assignments and lab works integrated with this course. Lecture Notes (33); Assignments Module-1 Introduction to VLSI Design, Lecture 1 : Motivation of the Course, Lecture 1, 22 kb. Over the past several years, Silicon CMOS technology has become the dominant fabrication process for relatively high EC2354 -VLSI DESIGN -Unit 5. Within the Introduction, a historical perspective is given first, describing how the term has evolved from integrated VLSI Design Methodology Boonchuay Supmonchai June 10th, 2006 2102545 Digital IC VLSI Design Methodology 2 B. But I have not found it yet. Mason Lecture Notes Page 2. Supmonchai Outlines VLSI Design Flow and Structural Design Principles VLSI Design Styles VLSI Design Strategies Computer-Aided Design Technology for VLSI 2102545 Digital IC VLSI Design Methodology 3 B. EC6601 VLSI Design Nov/Dec 2016 Anna University Question paper Nov/Dec 2016 Here you can get Previous Year Question paper Recent Question Papers 2marks syllabus 2013 regulation etc. Sharma 20-09-2018 VLSI DESIGN ISSUES Design Process Definition: The sequence of s17/03/2018 · Download EC6601 VLSI Design (VLSI) Books Lecture Notes Syllabus Part A 2 marks with answers EC6601 VLSI Design (VLSI) Important Part B 16 marks Questions, PDF Books, Question Bank with answers Key, EC6601 VLSI Design (VLSI) Syllabus & Anna University EC6601 VLSI Design (VLSI) Question Papers Collection. enhancements, Technology related CAD issues, Manufacturing issues UNIT II Lecture Notes 7. A significant part of the course is taken up by a group design project in which students design an integrated circuit. Got Something 6tj Say: Substructure Design By W. 1. Link: Complete Notes PART – A Link: Part A Notes UNIT – 1. A REVIEW OF MICROELECTRONIC 3 AND AN INTRODUCTION TO MOS TECHNOLOGY: Introduction to integrated circuit technology, Production of E-beam masks. EC2354 -VLSI DESIGN -Unit 5. In the 1960s, Gordon Moore, …issues in large digital VLSI chips. 1. Download EC6601 VLSI Design (VLSI) Books Lecture Notes Syllabus Part A 2 marks with answers EC6601 VLSI Design (VLSI) Important Part B 16 marks Questions, PDF Books, Question Bank with answers Key, EC6601 VLSI Design Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining millions of transistors or devices into a single chip. EC64 VLSI DESIGN SYLLABUS . Such references require additional run-time calculation to determineIntroduction & Trends Introduction to Digital Integrated Circuit Design Lecture 1 - 4 Recommended Books N. Introduction to VLSI system design z VLSI design methodology and computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools z Hardware description language and hardware behavior modelVLSI Design Automation Lecture Notes by Prof. comwww. EC6601 Notes pdf file download VLSI Design Notes. vidyarthiplus. At the core of this class is the job of ‘circuit design’ and the tasks that a circuit designer does in the industry. This course is intended to provide the student with the two basic capabilities: 1) To do the early design planning for an embedded SOC using a high level RTL model and 2) To do the circuit feasibility analysis of the critical components of the SOC. Telecommunication Switching Systems (TCSS) Notes/Study Materials. LawEE559 MOS VLSI Design Prepared by CK & KR 3 Course Outline • Introduction: Historical perspective and Future Trend • Semiconductor Devices • CMOS Logic …Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI 10EC56 CITSTUDENTS. Cmos Vlsi Design Even Solutions. Structured VLSI design is a modular methodology originated by Carver Mead and Note: This template roughly follows the 2012 ACM Computing Classification System. Floorplan Design of VLSI Circuits 267 A binary sequence bib2" 9 9 bm is said to be a balloting sequence iff for any k, 1 - k- < m, the number of 0's is less than l's in bib2 9 9 9 bk. Presents a unified view of technological, architectural and design-related aspects of VLSI systems, and to familiarize the audience with the state-of-the-art issues in VLSI system design. Salem/Prof. Here you can download free lecture Notes of VLSI Design Pdf Notes - VLSI Notes Pdf materials with multiple file links. e. – signal delay in RC circuits. Please be sincere about them. 3 Link: Complete Notes PART – A Link: Part A Notes UNIT – 1. It will also take a quick look at the It will also take a quick look at the basic elements that make up VLSI chips: MOS transistors and wires. 2. 1 ECE 410, Prof. Supmonchai Simplified VLSI Design Flows System Specification Functional …The main design issues defining the make-or-break point in each project is associated with power and signal distribution and bit/symbol communication between functional blocks on-chip and off-chip. Lecture Notes 7. Students are encouraged to try out and expand the Students are encouraged to try out and expand the examples in their own time. I know these things are not in the order and etc. enhancements, Technology related CAD issues, Manufacturing issues UNIT II Problems in VLSI design. In particular, there is a FAQ section where issues relating to the material in this course are addressed. Chapter 1. Einstein College of Engineering . • wire and transistor sizing. ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. freetechbooks. Mason notes update Lecture Notes 7. wikipedia. Proceedings of ASP-DAC 2002. Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by However, as the complexity of circuits grew, problems arose. The ECE Learning Resource Center . Yoo/ Prof. ECE-451 VLSI Systems and Design SPRING 2015 ECE-451: VLSI Systems and Design This course provides an introduction to the design and implementation of VLSI circuits for complex digitalVLSI / VLSI Design Notes/Study Materials. NotesCmos Vlsi Design By Weste And Harris Solution Manual chapter 2 mos transistor theory boonchuay supmonchai integrated design application research idar laboratory june 16th 2004 revised june 16th 2005 goal of this chapter present intuitive understanding of device operation introduction of device basic equations slideshow 4048869 cable splicing is the process of connecting two end terminals of 6. Laboratory Work • This is an Engineering Course. This note covers the following topics:Nano-Scale VLSI Design Challenges, CMOS Logic, VLSI Subsystem Design,Semiconductor Memories, Source of Variations, Impact of Variations, Device Degradation, Architecture of Current SOC Chips, Challenges of 3D Implementations and Low-Power VLSI. AXI Protocol: AXI -> very high performance protocol BUt at the same time, in terms of power consumption, it …and what it hard about VLSI design. org/wiki/Very-large-scale_integrationVery-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining millions of transistors or devices into a single chip. The following information is tentative and subject to change, but should give you some idea of what to expect. – Elmore delay minimization via GP. Shantanu Dutt File Type : Online Number of Pages : NA Description This note covers the following topics: Chip Design Styles, High Level Synthesis, Register Allocation in High Level Synthesis, VLSI Circuit Issues, Multilevel Partitioning, Algorithmic Techniques in VLSI CAD, Sequence-pair based floor design, on chip communication and device control software. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. OBJECTIVES VLSI Design Notes: In this course, the MOS circuit realization of the various building blocks that is common to any microprocessor or digital VLSI circuit is studied. txt) or view presentation slides online. ECE-451 VLSI Systems and Design SPRING 2015 ECE-451: VLSI Systems and Design This course provides an introduction to the design and implementation of VLSI circuits for complex digitaldesign continues, system engineers, responsible for developing a hardware system, are getting involved in SI and most likely employ design guidelines and routing constraints from signal integrity perspectives. Enviar. ECE-451 VLSI Systems and Design SPRING 2015 ECE-451: VLSI Systems and Design This course provides an introduction to the design and implementation of VLSI circuits for complex digitalAns. 1 ECE 410: VLSI Design Course Lecture Notes (Uyemura textbook) Professor Andrew Mason Michigan State UniversityThis note covers the following topics:Nano-Scale VLSI Design Challenges, CMOS Logic, VLSI Subsystem Design,Semiconductor Memories, Source of Variations, Impact of Variations, Device Degradation, Architecture of Current SOC Chips, Challenges of 3D Implementations and Low-Power VLSI. Fox Download PDF of VLSI Design Note Electronics and Communication Engineering offline reading, offline notes, free download in App, Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free downloadWe use cookies to make interactions with our website easy and meaningful, to better understand the use of our services, and to tailor advertising. However, the level of details and description in the notes will not be as complete as the information that you would find in a textbook. Sharma 20-09-2018 VLSI DESIGN ISSUES Design Process Definition: The sequence of s VLSI Design Notes EC6601. VLSI ENGINEERING (3-1-0) MODULE 1: Issues and Challenges in VLSI Design: Integration density and performance of integrated circuits have gone through an astounding revolution in the last couple of decades. – VLSI Design Issues: • Timing in Digital Circuits • Power Issues • and Parasitics – Data Path Design: Realizations of Computational blocks, like adders, multipliers, CORDIC. Presentation Transcript Slide 1 VLSI Systems Design EE116B (Winter 2001): Lecture #1 . VLSI DESIGN ISSUES Dr. VLSI Design - VLSI; Note; 7 Topics; 11407 Views; 531 Offline Downloads; Uploaded 1 year ago. At the core of this class is the job At the core of this class is the job of ‘circuit design’ and the tasks that a circuit designer does in theCircuit-Design Issues 4. EC6601 Notes pdf file download VLSI Design Notes. pdf), Text File (. com www. edu J. Prasad, Low Power CMOS VLSI Circuit Design, John Wiley • A. 1957244. • Review content of my VLSI Design course • Present lecture on material of your choice Afternoon • Discuss advanced & graduate course topics • Discuss challenges & solutions to teaching VLSI • Review upcoming Break Out Groups (BOGs) • Choose lecture topics A. 3 sessions. EC6601 Notes Syllabus all 5 units notes are uploaded here. ppt / . Mason July 2008 IUCEE Workshop: VLSI Design, Day 2 2 Course Topics I • CMOS Logic All notes (PPT slides) for my • MOSFET The lecture notes for this course are closely based on the course textbook: Rabaey, Jan, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Bora Nikolic. 5/5(16)Very Large Scale Integration - Wikipediahttps://en. 2 Issues in chip design Signal delay Heat generation Mixed-signal designs 3 Proposed methodologies Photonics Plasmonics Carbon nanotubes S-parameter design 4 Conclusions and mathematical challenges Thanos Antoulas (Rice U & Jacobs U) Mathematical challenges in VLSI chip design 2 / 30. Design VLSI circuits from register-transfer level to layouts. Introduction (cont’d) Course Outline – Physical, circuit, and logical design – Microarchitecture – Design issuesEE559 MOS VLSI Design Prepared by CK & KR 3 Course Outline • Introduction: Historical perspective and Future Trend • Semiconductor Devices • CMOS Logic …1 affiliated institutions anna university, chennai regulations - 2013 m. Job Description Help you, accelerate your design, lowering the cost and the risks associated with the development of ASIC, FPGA and SOC. Foreign Language . htmlDesign of VLSI Systems. comEC64 VLSI DESIGN SYLLABUS UNIT I CMOS TECHNOLOGYA brief History-MOS transistor, Ideal I-V characteristics, C-V characteristics, Non ideal IV effects, DC transfer characteristics - CMOS technologies, Layout design Rules, CMOS process enhancements, Technology related CAD issues, Manufacturing issuesUNIT II CIRCUIT Advanced VLSI Design Jason Stinson Intel Corporation [email protected] . ▫ Hierarchy and Abstraction. Add. 4 ELEC & COMP 523 Computer-Aided Design for VLSI 7 MPUs Performance and manufacturing cost issues outweigh design or other NRE cost issues Primarily because these chips can potentiallyCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. VLSI Design Notes Pdf – VLSI Pdf Notes book starts with the topics Basic Electrical Properties of MOS and BiCMOS Circuits, Logic Gates and Other complex VLSI Design i. The Manufacturing Process. F. Explain it briefly. The main focus in this course is on the transistor circuit level design and realization for digital operation and the issues involved as well as the topics covered are quite distinct from those encountered vlsi notes for ece 6th sem courses on CMOS Analog IC design. VLSI Design Issues. Advanced VLSI Design Introduction CMPE 641 Gate-Array Based Design: Sea-of-Gates In a gate array, the transistors level masks are fully defined and the designer can notThe course covers the whole range of basic issues related to digital integrated circuit design and development. Engg and Tech . Course Goals. Notes taken from daily job. 1 VLSI Design Issues Scaling/Moore’s Law has limits due to the physics of material. Embedded Systems. 1 for all types of online study material, Download CBSE Notes, NEET Notes, Engineering Notes, MBA Notes and a lot more under one roof. – transistor and wire sizing. Telecommunications and Switching Systems. Basic MOS models, SPICE Models and frequency dependent parameters. Embedded Systems Embedded systems unit 1 and unit 2 notes given by Krishna Chaitanya Sir Embedded systems Unit 3 Notes/ppt by Krishna Chaitanya Sir Embedded systems Unit 4 Notes/ppt by Krishna Chaitanya …Analog VLSI Circuit Design. vlsi design i to iv semesters curricula and syllabi (full time) semester iEE371 Lecture 1-3 Horowitz Class Readings I wish there was a good book on circuit design. Savitesh M. com. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. VLSI Design Notes Anna University EC2354 Lecture Notes, CMOS VLSI DESIGN (Third edition) 1 D. 1 ECE 410: VLSI Design Course Lecture Notes (Uyemura textbook) Professor Andrew Mason Michigan State University22/07/2018 · Unit-I - Issues and Challenges in VLSI Design, VLSI Design Methodology, VLSI DesignFlow, VLSI Design Hierarchy, VLSI Design Styles, CAD Technology. –Page 1 VL0306-VLSI Devices & Design Lesson notes-Session no. May 1, 2013 Einstein College of EngineeringEC64 VLSI DESIGN Vlsi design notes. Mason notes update. PickMyCoaching. com/design-of-vlsi-systems-t319. EntrarSES-1 NOTES: AXI, AHB and ASB … -> AMBA standard These are On-chip protocols. Salem & Prof. Chandrakasan, W. These are the most commonly used when i'm with unix shell. b) Develop a sequence of tests for the ‘01’ string recognizer which tests every combinational gate for both stuck -at -0 and stuck -at-1 faults. A Historical Perspective, Issues in Digital Integrated Circuit Design and Quality Metrics of a Digital Design. Module-2 Lecture 13. Mason notes update VLSI Design Issues Scaling/Moore’s Law limits due to the physics of material. Indeed, a problem of p-well and n-well CMOS processing is Introduction to Design Methodologies. Labs: Wed 11:00-1:50 Rm 2046 Coover notes, laboratory assignments, and other course support materials. The written examination in May/June (open book) contributes 75% to the overall mark while the project contributes 25%. UNIT I CMOS TECHNOLOGY 9 A brief History-MOS transistor, Ideal I-V characteristics, C-V characteristics, Non ideal IV effects, DC transfer characteristics - CMOS technologies, Layout design Rules, CMOS process enhancements, Technology related CAD issues, Manufacturing issuesLecture Notes # 7 -- Algorithmic Techniques in VLSI CAD ppt Lecture Notes # 8 -- Floorplanning intro, simulated annealing and mixed integer programming formulation pdf Lecture Notes # 8a -- Yet another (good) FP slide set pdfI Design ows (EDA tools), issues, and trends ECE 429 { Introduction to VLSI Design Spring 2019 7/22 . Course Objectives (ABET) After completing this course, you should be able to: 1. Reviews: 1Format: PaperbackDesign of VLSI Systems - freetechbooks. Read about the latest trends in VLSI design at EE Times ; Deepchip. . ECE425 Intro VLSI System Design Lecture Notes The lecture notes will include some material not covered in the principle textbook and will be the primary course material. Harris, “CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuits andChapter: VLSI Design - Circuit Characterization and Simulation Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detailFechar sugestões. IN Page- 2 PART-B Unit-5: CMOS subsystem design Architectural issues, switch logic, gate logic, design examples-combinational logic,VLSI Design 2 Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. pptx), PDF File (. H. ▫ Synthesis, Analysis, Verification, … ▫ Implementation Architectural issues, switch logic, gate logic, design examples-combinational logic, clocked circuits. 7th Asia and South Pacific and the 15th International Conference on VLSI Design. Anna University EC6601 VLSI Design Syllabus Notes 2 marks with answer is provided below. here E C6601 VLSI Design Syllabus notes download link is provided and students can download the EC 6601 Syllabus and Lecture Notes and can make use of it. ▫ The VLSI Design Problem. Contents 1 Chip design: Moore’s Law 2 Issues in chip design Signal delay Heat generation Mixed …Course Outline 1. There are a lot of books, literatures, user manuals, and guidebooks that are related to cmos vlsi design even solutions such as: six impossible things kindle edition renee carter hall , sports1 affiliated institutions anna university, chennai regulations - 2013 m. A Pucknell & K. UNIT 4 VLSI Design (ECE 401 E) DELAY MODELS Delay modeling of ICs can be done in several ways, resulting in trade-offs between computation times and analysis accuracy. 3 i) Graduate will show the understanding of impact of engineering solutions on the society and also will be aware of contemporary issues Ability to model & design an IC for an application in a society k) Graduates will show the ability to participate and try to succeed in competitive examinations. Bowhill, F. Details about not only accessing a Wiki but using a Wiki to post or edit materials are also included on the Wiki itself EC6601 VLSI Design Nov/Dec 2016 Anna University Question Paper. Analog VLSI Design Nguyen Cao Qui Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. So the lecture notes are the principle reference material that you will use in the class. comEinstein College of Engineeringwww. CMOS VLSI DESIGN—A circuits and systems perpective. Course content • Introduction to Analog VLSI and mixed signal issues in CMOS technologies. – dominant ECE 410, Prof. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. This page was last edited on 25 February 2018, at 15:13. Issue and Challenges in VLSI Design - ( 1 - 6 ) CMOS Inverter - ( 7 - 25 ) Combinational Logic Circuit - ( 26 - 47 ) Dynamic Latches and Registers - ( 48 - 62 ) Static And Dynamic RAMs - ( 63 - 71 ) Design Capture Tool - ( 72 - 79 ) Testing and Verification - ( 80 - 98 )1 May 2013 Einstein College of EngineeringEC64 VLSI DESIGN Vlsi design notes. Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design …3 VLSI Design Projects There will be approximately 5 VLSI design projects during the semester. Details about not only accessing a Wiki but using a Wiki to post or edit materials are also included on the Wiki itself 3 5 Prerequisites • EE 5323 VLSI Design I or equivalent – MOS transistor – Static, dynamic logic, pass transistor logic – Sequential logic • Familiarity with VLSI CAD tools3BA4: VLSI Design PDF version of the lecture notes by Diarmuid Power and Edsko de Vries May 12, 2003Buy VLSI 2010 Annual Symposium: Selected papers (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering) 2012 by Nikolaos Voros, Amar Mukherjee, Nicolas Sklavos, Konstantinos Masselos, Michael Huebner (ISBN: 9789400737624) from Amazon's Book Store. I will also try to include additional information to help you understand the material Chapter : Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design, PPT, Semester, Engineering notes for Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) is made by best teachers who have written some of the best books of Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE). This book contains insights and …Therefore for low power and high speed Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuit design this work is applicable. com Get deals and discounts at your coaching institute at www. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. VLSI Design Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answers. About the Tutorial. EC6601 Notes Syllabus all 5 units notes are uploaded here. The main focus in this course is on the transistor circuit level design and realization for digital operation and the issues involved as well as the topics covered are quite distinct from those encountered in courses vlsi notes for ece 6th sem CMOS Analog IC design. Eshraghian Basic VLSI Design, Third edition, PHI ECE 410: VLSI Design Course Lecture ? ECE 410, Prof. Slide 2. VLSI Design Notes EC6601 Regulation 2013 Anna University free download. This cours explores the HDL and CMOS based design techniques, testability in logic circuit design, SoC issues and PLD architecture along with many interesting concepts in VLSI design. Design Engineer at truechip. and what it hard about VLSI design. Technology-Related Issues 5. Subject : VLSI Design MOS TRANSISTOR PRINCIPLE COMBINATIONAL LOGIC CIRCUITS 1. The lecture notes for this course are closely based on the course textbook: Rabaey, Jan, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Bora Nikolic. Weste and D. A brief History-MOS transistor, Ideal I-V characteristics, C-V characteristics, Non ideal IV effects,Get Free notes at www. www. Scaling/Moore's Law has limits due to the physics of material. a) What are the various issues in system-on-chip design? Explain it briefly. • A new way of THINKING to simultaneously achieve both!!! • Low power impacts in the cost, size, weight, performance, andConference: Design Automation Conference, 2002. 4 Class Materials • Lecture notes: primary reference • K. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design …. Array – An array is a homogeneous collection of data elements in which an individual element is identified by its position in the collection, relative to the first element. A brief History-MOS transistor, Ideal I-V characteristics, C-V characteristics, Non ideal IV effects, DC transfer characteristics - CMOS technologies, Layout design Rules, CMOS process . I Design ows (EDA tools), issues, and trends ECE 429 { Introduction to VLSI Design Spring 2019 7/22 . com is a great resource for VLSI CAD. • Assignments shall encompass: – Verilog Coding Static and Dynamic Latches and Registers, Timing issues, pipelines, clock strategies, Memory architecture and memory control circuits, Low power memory circuits, Synchronous and Asynchronous design UNIT IV DESIGNING ARITHMETIC BUILDING BLOCKS 9Presentation Transcript Slide 1 VLSI Systems Design EE116B (Winter 2001): Lecture #1 . • Low-power design is also a requirement for IC designers. Computer Aids for VLSI Design by Steven Rubin presents a broad and coherent view of the computational tools available to the VLSI designer. Problems in VLSI design. Thank you for visiting my thread. VLSI Design Notes Pdf. here E C6601 VLSI Design Syllabus notes download link is provided and students can download the EC 6601 Syllabus and Lecture Notes …ECE 410, Prof. ▫ Synthesis, Analysis, Verification, … ▫ Implementation A Historical Perspective, Issues in Digital Integrated Circuit Design and Quality Metrics of a Digital Design. enhancements, Technology related CAD issues, Manufacturing issues Notesgen is the No. VLSI DESIGN ISSUES Dr. A reference to an array element in a program often includes one or more non constant subscripts